GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.

TitleGWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsRietveld, CA, Medland, SE, Derringer, J, Yang, J, Esko, T, Martin, NW, Westra, H-J, Shakhbazov, K, Abdellaoui, A, Agrawal, A, Albrecht, E, Alizadeh, BZ, Amin, N, Barnard, J, Baumeister, SE, Benke, KS, Bielak, LF, Boatman, JA, Boyle, PA, Davies, G, de Leeuw, C, Eklund, N, Evans, DS, Ferhmann, R, Fischer, K, Gieger, C, Gjessing, HK, Hägg, S, Harris, JR, Hayward, C, Holzapfel, C, Ibrahim-Verbaas, CA, Ingelsson, E, Jacobsson, B, Joshi, PK, Jugessur, A, Kaakinen, MA, Kanoni, S, Karjalainen, J, Kolcic, I, Kristiansson, K, Kutalik, Z, Lahti, J, Lee, SH, Lin, P, Lind, PA, Liu, Y, Lohman, K, Loitfelder, M, McMahon, G, Vidal, PMarques, Meirelles, O, Milani, L, Myhre, R, Nuotio, M-L, Oldmeadow, C, Petrovic, KE, Peyrot, WJ, Polasek, O, Quaye, L, Reinmaa, E, Rice, JP, Rizzi, TS, Schmidt, H, Schmidt, R, Smith, AVernon, Smith, JA, Tanaka, T, Terracciano, A, van der Loos, MJHM, Vitart, V, Völzke, H, Wellmann, J, Yu, L, Zhao, W, Allik, J, Attia, JR, Bandinelli, S, Bastardot, F, Jonathan P. Beauchamp, Bennett, DA, Berger, K, Bierut, LJ, Boomsma, DI, Bültmann, U, Campbell, H, Chabris, CF, Cherkas, L, Chung, MK, Cucca, F, de Andrade, M, De Jager, PL, De Neve, J-E, Deary, IJ, Dedoussis, G, Deloukas, P, Dimitriou, M, Eiríksdóttir, G, Elderson, MF, Eriksson, JG, Faul, JD, Ferrucci, L, Garcia, ME, Grönberg, H, Guðnason, V, Hall, P, Harris, JM, Harris, TB, Hastie, ND, Heath, AC, Hernandez, D, Hoffmann, W, Hofman, A, Holle, R, Holliday, EG, Hottenga, J-J, Iacono, WG, Illig, T, Järvelin, M-R, Kähönen, M, Kaprio, J, Kirkpatrick, RM, Kowgier, M, Latvala, A, Launer, LJ, Lawlor, DA, Lehtimäki, T, Li, J, Lichtenstein, P, Lichtner, P, Liewald, DC, Madden, PA, Magnusson, PKE, Mäkinen, TE, Masala, M, McGue, M, Metspalu, A, Mielck, A, Miller, MB, Montgomery, GW, Mukherjee, S, Nyholt, DR, Oostra, BA, Palmer, LJ, Palotie, A, Penninx, BW, Perola, M, Peyser, PA, Preisig, M, Räikkönen, K, Raitakari, OT, Realo, A, Ring, SM, Ripatti, S, Rivadeneira, F, Rudan, I, Rustichini, A, Salomaa, V, Sarin, A-P, Schlessinger, D, Scott, RJ, Snieder, H, St Pourcain, B, Starr, JM, Sul, JHoon, Surakka, I, Svento, R, Teumer, A, Tiemeier, H, van Rooij, FJA, Van Wagoner, DR, Vartiainen, E, Viikari, J, Vollenweider, P, Vonk, JM, Waeber, G, Weir, DR, Wichmann, H-E, Widen, E, Willemsen, G, Wilson, JF, Wright, AF, Dalton C. Conley, Davey-Smith, G, Franke, LL, Groenen, PJF, Hofman, A, Johannesson, M, Kardia, SLR, Krueger, RF, Laibson, DI, Martin, NG, Meyer, MN, Posthuma, D, Thurik, AR, Timpson, NJ, Uitterlinden, AG, van Duijn, CM, Visscher, PM, Benjamin, DJ, Cesarini, D, Koellinger, P
Corporate AuthorsLifeLines Cohort Study
JournalScience
Volume340
Issue6139
Pagination1467-71
Date Published2013 Jun 21
ISSN Number1095-9203
KeywordsCHARGE, Cognitive Ability, Education, Genetics, Women and Minorities
Abstract

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

DOI10.1126/science.1235488
Alternate JournalScience
Citation Key8620
PubMed ID23722424
PubMed Central IDPMC3751588
Grant ListAA09367 / AA / NIAAA NIH HHS / United States
AA11886 / AA / NIAAA NIH HHS / United States
BB/F019394/1 / / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / United Kingdom
CZB/4/710 / / Chief Scientist Office / United Kingdom
DA024417 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
DA029377 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
DA05147 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
DA13240 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
ETM/55 / / Chief Scientist Office / United Kingdom
F31 DA029377 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
G0600705 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
G0700704 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
G9815508 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
K05 AA017688 / AA / NIAAA NIH HHS / United States
MC_PC_15018 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_PC_U127561128 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/3 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/4 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/5 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MH016880 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MH066140 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MR/K026992/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
P01 AG005842 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01 CA089392 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P01 GM099568 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
P01-AG005842 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01-AG005842-20S2 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG012810 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30-AG012810 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AA009367 / AA / NIAAA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AA011886 / AA / NIAAA NIH HHS / United States
R01 DA013240 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL090620 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL105756 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL111314 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH066140 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R37 DA005147 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
T32 AG000186 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
T32 MH016880 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
T32-AG000186-23 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 DA024417 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
Z01 AG001050-01 / / Intramural NIH HHS / United States
ZIA AG000196-03 / / Intramural NIH HHS / United States
ZIA AG000196-04 / / Intramural NIH HHS / United States