Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.

TitleGenome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsOkbay, A, Jonathan P. Beauchamp, Fontana, MA, Lee, JJ, Pers, TH, Rietveld, CA, Turley, P, Chen, G-B, Emilsson, V, S Meddens, FW, Oskarsson, S, Pickrell, JK, Thom, K, Timshel, P, de Vlaming, R, Abdellaoui, A, Ahluwalia, TS, Bacelis, J, Baumbach, C, Bjornsdottir, G, Brandsma, JH, Concas, MPina, Derringer, J, Furlotte, NA, Galesloot, TE, Girotto, G, Gupta, R, Hall, LM, Harris, SE, Hofer, E, Horikoshi, M, Huffman, JE, Kaasik, K, Kalafati, IPanagiota, Karlsson, R, Kong, A, Lahti, J, van der Lee, SJ, de Leeuw, C, Lind, PA, Lindgren, K-O, Liu, T, Mangino, M, Marten, J, Mihailov, E, Miller, MB, van der Most, PJ, Oldmeadow, C, Payton, A, Pervjakova, N, Peyrot, WJ, Qian, Y, Raitakari, OT, Rueedi, R, Salvi, E, Schmidt, B, Schraut, KE, Shi, J, Smith, AVernon, Poot, RA, St Pourcain, B, Teumer, A, Thorleifsson, G, Verweij, N, Vuckovic, D, Wellmann, J, Westra, H-J, Yang, J, Zhao, W, Zhu, Z, Alizadeh, BZ, Amin, N, Bakshi, A, Baumeister, SE, Biino, G, Bønnelykke, K, Boyle, PA, Campbell, H, Cappuccio, FP, Davies, G, De Neve, J-E, Deloukas, P, Demuth, I, Ding, J, Eibich, P, Eisele, L, Eklund, N, Faul, JD, Feitosa, MF, Forstner, A, Gandin, I, Gunnarsson, B, Halldórsson, BV, Harris, TB, Heath, AC, Hocking, LJ, Holliday, EG, Homuth, G, Horan, MA, Hottenga, J-J, De Jager, PL, Joshi, PK, Jugessur, A, Kaakinen, MA, Kähönen, M, Kanoni, S, Keltigangas-Järvinen, L, Kiemeney, LA, Kolcic, I, Koskinen, S, Kraja, AT, Kroh, M, Kutalik, Z, Latvala, A, Launer, LJ, Lebreton, MP, Levinson, DF, Lichtenstein, P, Lichtner, P, Liewald, DC, Loukola, A, Madden, PA, Mägi, R, Mäki-Opas, T, Marioni, RE, Marques-Vidal, P, Meddens, GA, McMahon, G, Meisinger, C, Meitinger, T, Milaneschi, Y, Milani, L, Montgomery, GW, Myhre, R, Nelson, CP, Nyholt, DR, Ollier, WER, Palotie, A, Paternoster, L, Pedersen, NL, Petrovic, KE, Porteous, D, Räikkönen, K, Ring, SM, Robino, A, Rostapshova, O, Rudan, I, Rustichini, A, Salomaa, V, Sanders, AR, Sarin, A-P, Schmidt, H, Scott, RJ, Smith, BH, Smith, JA, Staessen, JA, Steinhagen-Thiessen, E, Strauch, K, Terracciano, A, Tobin, MD, Ulivi, S, Vaccargiu, S, Quaye, L, van Rooij, FJA, Venturini, C, Vinkhuyzen, AE, Völker, U, Völzke, H, Vonk, JM, Vozzi, D, Waage, J, Ware, EB, Willemsen, G, Attia, JR, Bennett, DA, Berger, K, Bertram, L, Bisgaard, H, Boomsma, DI, Borecki, IB, Bültmann, U, Chabris, CF, Cucca, F, Cusi, D, Deary, IJ, Dedoussis, G, van Duijn, CM, Eriksson, JG, Franke, B, Franke, LL, Gasparini, P, Gejman, PV, Gieger, C, Grabe, H-J, Gratten, J, Groenen, PJF, Gudnason, V, van der Harst, P, Hayward, C, Hinds, DA, Hoffmann, W, Hyppönen, E, Iacono, WG, Jacobsson, B, Järvelin, M-R, Jöckel, K-H, Kaprio, J, Kardia, SLR, Lehtimäki, T, Lehrer, SF, Magnusson, PKE, Martin, NG, McGue, M, Metspalu, A, Pendleton, N, Penninx, BW, Perola, M, Pirastu, NN, Pirastu, M, Polasek, O, Posthuma, D, Power, C, Province, MA, Samani, N, Schlessinger, D, Schmidt, R, Sørensen, TIA, Spector, TD, Stefansson, K, Thorsteinsdottir, U, A Thurik, R, Timpson, NJ, Tiemeier, H, Tung, JY, Uitterlinden, AG, Vitart, V, Vollenweider, P, Weir, DR, Wilson, JF, Wright, AF, Dalton C. Conley, Krueger, RF, Smith, GDavey, Hofman, A, Laibson, DI, Medland, SE, Meyer, MN, Yang, J, Johannesson, M, Visscher, PM, Esko, T, Koellinger, P, Cesarini, D, Benjamin, DJ
Corporate AuthorsLifeLines Cohort Study
JournalNature
Volume533
Issue7604
Pagination539-42
Date Published2016 05 26
ISSN Number1476-4687
KeywordsAlzheimer's disease, Bipolar Disorder, Cognitive Ability, Education, Fetus, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Schizophrenia, United Kingdom
Abstract

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

DOI10.1038/nature17671
User Guide Notes

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225129?dopt=Abstract

Alternate JournalNature
Citation Key8883
PubMed ID27225129
PubMed Central IDPMC4883595
Grant ListR01 DA036216 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
RF1 AG015819 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
MC_UU_12013/3 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
R01 AG017917 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
MC_UU_12013/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
CZD/16/6/4 / / Chief Scientist Office / United Kingdom
T32-AG000186-23 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01-AG005842 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01-AG042568 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30-AG012810 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01 AG005842 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R37 DA005147 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG012810 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG042568 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
T32 AG000186 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01-AG005842-20S2 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
647648 / / European Research Council / International