Neighborhood Environment and Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

TitleNeighborhood Environment and Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsNicklett, EJ, Lohman, MC, Smith, ML
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume14
Issue2
Date Published2017 Feb 10
ISSN Number1660-4601
KeywordsCommunity-dwelling, Health Shocks, Neighborhoods, Older Adults, Social Support
Abstract

Background: Falls present a major challenge to active aging, but the relationship between neighborhood factors and falls is poorly understood. This study examined the relationship between fall events and neighborhood factors, including neighborhood social cohesion (sense of belonging, trust, friendliness, and helpfulness) and physical environment (vandalism/graffiti, rubbish, vacant/deserted houses, and perceived safety walking home at night). Methods: Data were analyzed from 9259 participants over four biennial waves (2006-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Results: In models adjusting for demographic and health-related covariates, a one-unit increase in neighborhood social cohesion was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (odds ratio (OR): 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.99) and 6% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98). A one-unit increase in the physical environment scale was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and with 5% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) in adjusted models. Conclusions: The physical and social neighborhood environment may affect fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Findings support the ongoing need for evidence-based fall prevention programming in community and clinical settings.

DOI10.3390/ijerph14020175
Alternate JournalInt J Environ Res Public Health
Citation Key8901
PubMed ID28208598